Butt Out! The Smokers Book
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Tobacco is the most accessible drug, and its consumption has its history. In the archeological finds in areas where the Indians from the Mayan tribe lived, the priests were shown smoking a tobacco pipe during a ceremony [ 6 ]. A common pipe was smoked during various ceremonies, as a welcome sign, for the end of warfare and peacemaking, as the famous peace flag. Tribal healers used tobacco, dry leaves, or powdered leaves as a healing remedy for wounds, pain relief, fatigue, thirst, or hunger [ 7 ].
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There was an overwhelming belief that tobacco was a sacred plant. Tobacco is considered to be abundant in North America [ 6 ]. The history of tobacco dates back to when Christopher Columbus wrote in his journal: here, in the new country there are men and women with a half-burnt weed in their hands, being the herbs they are accustomed to smoke… [ 8 ]. Colombian sailors transferred tobacco to Spain and Portugal, and from there it was spread across European countries and other continents.
In , French Ambassador of Portugal Jean Nicot brought tobacco seeds to the royal court and gave it to Queen Katarina Medici as a miraculous and healing plant.
Tobacco got its Latin name after his surname Nicotiana. There are 70 different species of Nicotiana , and the best known is the one from the Solanaceae family—Nicotiana t abacum [ 9 ]. It is a 1-year plant that can grow up to 2 meters, and tobacco is produced in the root and deposited in the leaves [ 9 ]. The name is derived from the Arabic word tobacco , meaning smoke. From to , smoking spread across Europe in all social classes [ 10 ].
During the seventeenth century, tobacco planting was extended to other European countries: Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, and then the Far East and China [ 9 ]. The first laws prohibiting smoking were adopted in the seventeenth century. Sultan Murat brought a law that punished anyone who smoked with a death sentence because it was suspected that smokers caused a major fire in Constantinople. In the same period with the support of the church, anti-smoking laws were being adopted in Europe [ 11 ]. British King James I condemned the first tobacco importer in England with a death penalty.
In the mid-nineteenth century, industrial cigarette production began, and smoking became fashionable. Tobacco expansion and the number of smokers increased especially after the end of World War I where a large number of smokers recorded were among women.
Since the appearance of tobacco and smoking in Europe, we have witnessed the first conflicts between two sides, those who advocate smoking and tobacco as a healing plant, and others who consider it harmful and dangerous to health. None of the two parties could prove that they were right or wrong until the beginning of the twentieth century.
During the s, the dangers of tobacco smoking leading to mortality and the many consequences of smoking on the economic and social level were recognized. From the early s to the mids of the twenty-first century, the first experimental evidence confirms the association between tobacco smoke and lungs, bronchus diseases, and the carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke substances. Epidemiological research has shown that there is a causal link between excessive cigarette smoking and lung cancer. In , a statutory obligation was issued to highlight the health hazard warning on each cigarette box.
From to , Luther L. Thereafter, the scientific approach to the smoking problem intensified, and in , the First World Conference on Smoking and Health was held by the World Health Organization WHO as a systematic action plan.
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In , WHO began a systematic anti-smoking campaign and adopted the first anti-smoking resolution and first action plans. In , smoking was first listed in the International Classification of Diseases, and in , it was classified under mental disorders and tobacco-related disorders under code F Smoking is initially a habit leading to physical and psychological dependence. An important role in the smoking-related phenomenon is a number of repeated movements in the smoking act of the hand and oral muscles, cigarette outbreaks, lighting a cigarette, blowing smoke, holding, and extinguishing the cigarette butt.
All these movements are repeated a few hundred times a day [ 6 ] and become a ritual that is repeated. A smoker thus makes about — kisses daily by activating their oral muscles. The smell of smoke, fire, or lighter, and the way cigarette is lit also affect dependence.
Cigarettes are like magic wands that are used to relax, calm down, relieve stress, or as a substitute for enhanced food enjoyment. The act of smoking contributes toward self-destruction and pollution of the environment. Therefore, smoking is not just the problem of the person who smokes, but it creates problems for the entire community and society where the smoker lives and works.
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People who smoke cigarettes can be divided into four groups: permanent smoker, occasional smoker, former smoker, and non-smoker. The consequences of smoking can affect non-smokers, who we call passive smokers. Nicotine is the main tobacco alkaloid, isolated in It is a colorless, oily liquid, odorless, and one of the strongest herbal poisons and neurotoxins that act on the central and peripheral nervous system.
The most dangerous ingredient is tobacco smoke, which stays in the air, and is connected with oxygen with a characteristic smell of tobacco.
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This pattern cyclically repeats and promotes the sustenance of nicotine addiction, called nicotinism. Its effect on the central nervous system makes smoking comfortable and acts on brain cells in a way that regulates emotions, alleviates anxiety, irritability, and improves mood. The smoker is able to control how much the brain receives nicotine by blowing the smoke at his own pace [ 14 ]. Acute nicotine poisoning causes symptoms such as vomiting, weakness, blush, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, and sweating.
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Abdominal pain, cramps, anxiety disorder, low blood pressure, poorly filled pulse, salivation, epileptic cramps, collapse, loss of consciousness, cessation of breathing, and death are the result of larger quantities of poisoning. With regular smokers, symptoms of poisoning can occur if the smoker smokes double or multiple cigarettes, or more cigarettes than usual.
Tobacco smoke contains more than different compounds such as alkaloids; alcohols; phenols; ethers; ketones; quinones; esters; nitrites; hydrocarbons; sulfur organic compounds; various inorganic compounds of lead, iron, copper, manganese, nickel, hydrocarbon molybdenum; and other metabolites. The composition of tobacco smoke depends on the type of tobacco, the temperature and the rate of combustion, various supplements, the length of cigarettes, the technological processing, and the production of cigarettes. The most potent tobacco smoke ingredients introduced into the human body are nicotine, cyanide compounds, and carbon monoxide.
Nicotine, inhaled with other tobacco smoke ingredients or absorbed in the mucous membrane of the mouth, penetrates the blood and enters all parts of the body. Smoke pollutes all parts of the nasal cavity with various poisons and makes the gas exchange process difficult.
The nasal mucus destroys and prevents viruses and bacteria growing, and smoking tobacco reduces this function. When excessive smoking occurs, the mucous membrane is formed in the throat, speech becomes difficult, and the voice lurks. With frequent smoking, smokers cough more and more, thereby releasing smoking mucus from lung bronchi into the mouth cavity with harmful ingredients. Sinus cavities are constantly coated with tobacco smoke particles, causing the mucous membranes to be chronically inflated and thickened, and the openings are reduced. Many smokers therefore have occasional headaches, especially during colds and other diseases of the upper respiratory organs.
Plush tissue looks like a black sponge dipped in diluted tar. Due to the accumulation of tobacco particles on the bronchi, bronchial walls, and stronger bronchial mucus, their diameter narrows and reduces the flowability of the gases. Tobacco smoking causes increased bronchial hyperreactivity [ 15 ]. Oxidants and free radicals cause seizure and accumulation of neutrophils in pulmonary microcirculation, as well as accumulation of macrophages in respiratory bronchioles, whereby macrophages are a new potential oxidant reservoir that damages the tissue found [ 16 ].
Disordered harmony between ventilation and perfusion of alveolar spaces causes obstructive pulmonary diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchitis and bronchiectation. Smoking is a predisposing factor for respiratory infections [ 17 , 18 , 19 ] and exacerbation of asthma [ 20 ], as well as exposure to tobacco smoke from the environment that increases asthma and its exacerbation [ 21 ]. Smoking increases the risk of obesity and stomach cancer, as well as the development of osteoporosis that changes the physical appearance of a person.
Smoking is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases and adverse effects on endothelial blood vessels [ 24 , 25 ]. In families with hereditary characteristics of tumor development associated with smoking, there is a high probability of autosomal dominant inheritance of the predisposition for cancer [ 26 , 27 , 28 ].
The effect of smoking on reproductive system in men leads to erectile dysfunction [ 29 ] and sperm quality [ 30 ].
Sexual glands are very sensitive to nicotine and if consumed with alcohol leads to reduced sexual activity. Tobacco poisons damage the molecules inside the cell nucleus, especially the DNA that contains the chromosomes. Tobacco smoke poisons also slow the transmission of nerve impulses and reflex mechanisms that may be delayed or slower. Weight loss proves that tobacco poisons interfere with metabolism because smoking requires more energy and reduces appetite.
People exposed to passive smoking have higher IgE production overall and specific for allergenic patients [ 31 ]. Smokers have a higher level of total E immunoglobulin than non-smokers [ 32 ]. There is a cumulative effect of early and late exposure to smoking, including tobacco smoke from the environment and the appearance of atopic dermatitis [ 33 ]. Nicotine and other components of the cigarette smoke cause different endocrine imbalances and have a negative effect on the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands; testes, egg cells; and their function.
It significantly affects the probability of successful pregnancy in healthy women, not just in assisted reproduction cases. Women have adverse effects on reproductive ability, pregnancy-related difficulties, the use of oral contraceptives, menstrual cramps, and urinary bladder. Smoking destroys the human embryo and fetus throughout the entire perinatal development [ 34 , 35 ], after delivery, during breastfeeding, and throughout the life of the baby.
The consequences of its effect are complications in pregnancy, premature birth, reduced birth weight [ 36 ], and increased perinatal mortality. Children, during later stages of development after birth, may be prone to allergies, asthma, neurodermatitis, reduced sense of smell, tumor, disruption of intellectual maturation, frequency of aggression, and behavioral disorders.
With pregnant women who smoke, a fetus gets a number of harmful substances and poisons through the bloodstream, and it is the only source of nutrients and oxygen. The most common are nicotine and carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide produced by smoking is bound to pigments in red blood cells suppressing oxygen, which in turn limits the supply of oxygen to the fetus. Passive smoking with pregnant women in a smoking family or exposure to tobacco smoke is equally as dangerous as smoking.