The Disease

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The controversial recognitions as diseases of repetitive stress injury RSI and post-traumatic stress disorder also known as " Soldier's heart ", " shell shock ", and "combat fatigue" has had a number of positive and negative effects on the financial and other responsibilities of governments, corporations and institutions towards individuals, as well as on the individuals themselves. The social implication of viewing aging as a disease could be profound, though this classification is not yet widespread. Lepers were people who were historically shunned because they had an infectious disease, and the term "leper" still evokes social stigma.

Fear of disease can still be a widespread social phenomenon, though not all diseases evoke extreme social stigma.


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Social standing and economic status affect health. Diseases of poverty are diseases that are associated with poverty and low social status; diseases of affluence are diseases that are associated with high social and economic status. Which diseases are associated with which states varies according to time, place, and technology. Some diseases, such as diabetes mellitus , may be associated with both poverty poor food choices and affluence long lifespans and sedentary lifestyles , through different mechanisms.

The term lifestyle diseases describes diseases associated with longevity and that are more common among older people. For example, cancer is far more common in societies in which most members live until they reach the age of 80 than in societies in which most members die before they reach the age of An illness narrative is a way of organizing a medical experience into a coherent story that illustrates the sick individual's personal experience.

People use metaphors to make sense of their experiences with disease. The metaphors move disease from an objective thing that exists to an affective experience.

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The most popular metaphors draw on military concepts: Disease is an enemy that must be feared, fought, battled, and routed. The patient or the healthcare provider is a warrior, rather than a passive victim or bystander. The agents of communicable diseases are invaders; non-communicable diseases constitute internal insurrection or civil war.

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Because the threat is urgent, perhaps a matter of life and death, unthinkably radical, even oppressive, measures are society's and the patient's moral duty as they courageously mobilize to struggle against destruction. The War on Cancer is an example of this metaphorical use of language. Another class of metaphors describes the experience of illness as a journey: The person travels to or from a place of disease, and changes himself, discovers new information, or increases his experience along the way.

He may travel "on the road to recovery" or make changes to "get on the right track" or choose "pathways". Some metaphors are disease-specific. Slavery is a common metaphor for addictions : The alcoholic is enslaved by drink, and the smoker is captive to nicotine.

Some cancer patients treat the loss of their hair from chemotherapy as a metonymy or metaphor for all the losses caused by the disease. Some diseases are used as metaphors for social ills: "Cancer" is a common description for anything that is endemic and destructive in society, such as poverty, injustice, or racism.

Mosquito-Borne Diseases

AIDS was seen as a divine judgment for moral decadence, and only by purging itself from the "pollution" of the "invader" could society become healthy again. Victims of the disease were portrayed in literature as having risen above daily life to become ephemeral objects of spiritual or artistic achievement. In the 20th century, after its cause was better understood, the same disease became the emblem of poverty, squalor, and other social problems. Medical sign Symptom Syndrome. Medical diagnosis Differential diagnosis Prognosis. Disease Eponymous disease Acronym or abbreviation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 4 July For other uses, see Disease disambiguation. For the film, see Maladies film. For the Transformers character, see Flareup Transformers. Main article: nosology. See also: Cause medicine and Transmission medicine. Main article: Preventive medicine. Main article: Therapy. Main article: Epidemiology. Medicine portal Biology portal. Cryptogenic disease , a disease whose cause is currently unknown Developmental disability , severe, lifelong disabilities attributable to mental or physical impairments Environmental disease Host-pathogen interaction List of incurable diseases Mitochondrial disease Plant pathology Rare disease , a disease that affects very few people Sociology of health and illness Syndrome Philosophy of medicine.

Tindall Gask Bentley. Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 6 November Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 18 April Archived from the original on 25 October Retrieved 12 November Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers.

Retrieved 6 November — via medical-dictionary. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Brain Behav Immun. AMA Style Insider. American Medical Association. Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 22 July Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th ed.

Retrieved 20 November Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 16 August It is undergoing a strong resurgence. It is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito of the genus Aedes, which reproduces in stagnant water locations around habitations. It follows an endemic-epidemic transmission pattern. There are 4 distinct serotypes of the disease. After an incubation period of 7 days, the clinical picture is one of a fever and aches with a rash.

After a remission with a drop in temperature, the established stage occurs with resumption of the symptomatology. The disease lasts for a week, the recovery period is long, and is marked by a long-lasting asthenia. There are subclinical forms and, on the contrary, severe forms resulting in death. The clinical picture is not very specific; it is shared by other arboviral infections that present Dengue fever-like syndromes.

The definitive diagnosis of isolated cases depends on serology testing.


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  5. A vaccine is under study. The disease resulting from a virus of a given group does not confer immunity with regard to the viruses of the other groups. On the contrary, the fact that a patient has already suffered dengue fever exposes them to a new, more severe illness in the event of a new infection by a virus from a different group.

    Addiction as a Disease

    Yellow fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus: the yellow fever virus. It is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito of the Aedes genus. The natural host of the virus is a particular species of monkey living in forest regions. The virus can be transmitted, accidentally, to human communities. The disease follows an endemic-sporadic transmission pattern and gives rise to epidemics. It affects the tropical and subtropical regions of South America and Africa. The disease is absent from Asia, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean.

    It is currently highly present in Africa where small epidemics are regularly observed Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Senegal. The disease typically begins with a highly feverish state with headaches and lower back pain. It then progresses, in the typical forms, in 2 stages.

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    A red stage with fever, congested appearance to the face, headaches. There is a remission in the 3rd-4th day, then a yellow stage with recurrence of the fever, deterioration of the general condition, jaundice, black vomit vomitus containing blood , haemorrhaging, reduction in urine volume. The progression can be fatal.

    There are many milder or subclinical forms. The treatment is purely symptomatic. There is a vaccination that is very effective. This vaccination is compulsory for travellers visiting countries where the disease is likely to exist. The vaccination is administered at the approved vaccination centres. It is subject to inclusion on the international vaccination record. It is an infection caused by a Flavivirus: the West Nile virus.

    The vector is a mosquito of the Culex genus. The reservoir of the virus consists of birds. The disease initially affected Africa, part of central and southern Europe, the Middle East, and India.


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    A gradual expansion is being observed with a spread across the American continent from East to West, and to Eastern Europe and Russia. In France, the disease is present in Camargue where it affects horses, but also humans. The disease is frequently asymptomatic but it can cause feverish states accompanied sometimes by neurological signs presenting a clinical picture of encephalitis or flaccid paralysis. There is a risk of death or serious sequelae.

    Japanese encephalitis JE is caused by a Flavivirus.